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Download e-book for kindle: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Time and Space by Bas C. Van Fraassen

By Bas C. Van Fraassen

ISBN-10: 0231061331

ISBN-13: 9780231061339

An introductory, historic survey of philosophical positions on house and time, throughout the designated conception of relativity and the causal idea of time.

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This formulation is too strong, but is a good starting point. As we will see below, there are degrees to which a regularity can depend on particular initial conditions or on fortuitous results of random processes. If the degree is sufficiently reduced we consider the regularity explained. 40 A Modest Proposal So far we have dealt only in toy cases. But scientific practice supplies striking examples of the search for explanation of regularities by nomic subsumption and the role that search plays in evaluation of theories.

If there are any, there are few. Standard Big Bang cosmology is ontologically (and hence empirically) adequate with respect to these facts. There are models of Big Bangs which have as uniform background radiation as one likes, that have energy densities arbitrarily close to critical density, that have few or no magnetic monopoles. Nonetheless, these phenomena are considered to pose deep, perhaps fatal, objections to standard Big Bang cosmology. Why? e. between 10−43 and 10−30 seconds after the singularity], various problems arise.

In deterministic cases, all occurrences are fixed by the boundary values and the laws. The tacit ceteris paribus condition applies only at Step 2: we are to effect the commanded change making as few collateral changes as possible. In stochastic cases, events are determined by boundary values, laws, and the random outcomes of stochastic processes. How are we to apply the ceteris paribus clause to this last element? It is too strong to suggest that we should restrict our attention to models in which as many events as possible match those in the actual world.

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An Introduction to the Philosophy of Time and Space by Bas C. Van Fraassen

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